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Brief text on pharmacology of ganglionic transmission in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Brief text on pharmacology of ganglionic transmission in cat nictitating membrane preparation



Effect of atropine administered to ganglion, no electrical stimulation on cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of atropine administered to ganglion, no electrical stimulation on cat nictitating membrane. The trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of norepinephrine administered to ganglion, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of norepinephrine administered to ganglion, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of norepinephrine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of norepinephrine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of tyramine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of tyramine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of phentolamine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of phentolamine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of propranolol administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of propranolol administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Brief text describing method of administering test drugs to superior cervical ganglion of cat

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Brief text describing method of administering test drugs to superior cervical ganglion of cat



Effect of physostigmine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of physostigmine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Diagram illustrating injection site at superior cervical ganglion of cat

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Diagram illustrating injection site for drugs at superior cervical ganglion of cat. Vector illustration


cat intro

 Introduction

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Revitalised titlepage


Brief text describing the nictitating membrane of the cat

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 Introduction

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Brief text describing the nictitating membrane of the cat



Effect of nicotine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of nicotine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane.
Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of hexamethonium administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of hexamethonium administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of hexamethonium administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of hexamethonium administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of propranolol administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of propranolol administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of physostigmine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of physostigmine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Brief description of cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Brief description of cat nictitating membrane preparation


Brief description of the pharmacology of the neuroeffector junction of the cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Brief description of the pharmacology of the neuroeffector junction of the cat nictitating membrane preparation



Effect of phentolamine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of phentolamine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


intro3

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Original page text (HTML)


Effect of tyramine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of tyramine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Brief text describing how contractions of cat nictitating membrane are recorded

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Brief text describing how contractions of cat nictitating membrane are recorded


Effect of phentolamine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of phentolamine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of physostigmine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of physostigmine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of norepinephrine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of norepinephrine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of nicotine (high conc) administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of nicotine (high conc) administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of acetylcholine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of acetylcholine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Diagram showing method of recording contractions of cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Diagram showing method of recording contractions of cat nictitating membrane. Vector illustration


Effect of isoprenaline administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of isoprenaline administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effects of drugs on cat nictitating membrane

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 Interactions

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effects of drugs on cat nictitating membrane. The user can select a drug, from a drop-down list (saline (vehicle control); norepinephrine (noradrenaline); atropine; phentolamine; propranolol; isoprenaline; hexamethonium; physostigmine; nicotine; nicotine (high conc); tyramine; unknown). The user cam also select the site of administration (either the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) or the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and whether to electrically stimulate the preganglionic nerves (a stimulus protocol is pre-selected to give a sub-maximal contraction so that potential relaxant effects of drugs can be observed). The trace shows recordings from both ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes. (Absolute Paths) (Flash Interaction)


Effect of atropine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of atropine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Brief text describing method of drug administration to cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Brief text describing method of drug administration to cat nictitating membrane



Effect of hexamethonium administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of hexamethonium administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Animated diagram showing the release and action of norepinephrine at the neuroeffector junction

 Animation

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Animated diagram showing the release and action of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) at the neuroeffector junction. The step-though animation sequence shows the site of synthesis, the release, post-synaptic effect and the termination of the effects of norepinephrine. Text descriptions accompany each step. Flash


Effect of saline administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of saline (vehicle control) administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of isoprenaline administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of isoprenaline administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of atropine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of atropine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of hexamethonium administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of hexamethonium administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


image chooser final (delivery version)

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 Interactions

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Image/Trace Chooser (Final Version) (Flash Interaction). "Choose your experimental parameters: Test compound (Saline, Acetylcholine, Noradrenaline, Atropine, Phentolamine, Propranolol, Isoprenaline, Hexamethonium, Physostigmine, Nicotine, Nicotine high, Tyramine, Unknown), Administration site (Ganglion or Nictitating Membrane) and Nerve stimulation (On or Off)."


Effect of atropine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of atropine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Diagram showing method of administering drugs to the SCG in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Diagram showing method of administering drugs to the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Vector illustration


Effect of acetylcholine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of acetylcholine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


cat intro

 Introduction

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Original titlepage screengrab


Effect of nicotine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of nicotine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of isoprenaline administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of isoprenaline administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of physostigmine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of physostigmine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of saline administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of saline administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Diagram showing method of nerve simulation in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Diagram showing method of pre-ganglionic nerve simulation in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Vector illustration


Diagram showing method of recording contractions of cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Diagram showing method of recording contractions of cat nictitating membrane. Bitmap illustration


image chooser final (master version)

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 Interactions

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Image/Trace Chooser (Final Version) (Flash Interaction, FLA master file). "Choose your experimental parameters: Test compound (Saline, Acetylcholine, Noradrenaline, Atropine, Phentolamine, Propranolol, Isoprenaline, Hexamethonium, Physostigmine, Nicotine, Nicotine high, Tyramine, Unknown), Administration site (Ganglion or Nictitating Membrane) and Nerve stimulation (On or Off)."


Effect of nicotine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of nicotine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of nicotine (high conc) administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of nicotine (high conc) administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of propranolol administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of propranolol administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Diagram showing method of administering drugs to the NMJ in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Diagram showing method of administering drugs to the neuro-effector junction (NMJ) in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Bitmap illustration


Effect of tyramine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of tyramine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Brief text describing the usefulness of the cat nictitating membrane preparation for pharmacology investigations

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 Introduction

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Brief text describing the usefulness of the cat nictitating membrane preparation for pharmacology investigations. HTML


Effect of acetylcholine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of acetylcholine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of acetylcholine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of acetylcholine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Diagram showing method of nerve simulation in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Diagram showing method of nerve simulation in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Bitmap illustration


Effect of nicotine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of nicotine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Brief text describing method of administering test drugs to neuroeffector junction of cat

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Brief text describing method of administering test drugs to neuroeffector junction of cat nictitating membrane preparation. HTML


trace empty

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Experimental results trace showing the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Brief text describing method of electrically stimulating pre-ganglionic nerves in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Brief text describing method of electrically stimulating pre-ganglionic nerves in cat nictitating membrane preparation. HTML


Diagram showing the location of the superior cervical ganglion of the cat

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Diagram showing the location of the superior cervical ganglion of the cat including blood and nerve supplies. Vector illustration


Effect of saline administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of saline administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of tyramine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of tyramine administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of saline administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of saline administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Diagram showing the location of the superior cervical ganglion of the cat

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Diagram showing the location of the superior cervical ganglion of the cat including blood and nerve supplies. Bitmap illustration


Animation showing the process of ganglionic transmission

 Animation

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Animation showing the process of ganglionic transmission. Five step process describing the process from choline uptake, ACh synthesis, storage and release to post-synaptic action and termination of transmitter effects. Text descriptions of each stage of the process. Flash


Effect of propranolol administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of propranolol administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of phentolamine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of phentolamine administered to SCG, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Diagram showing method of administering drugs to the SCG in cat nictitating membrane preparation

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Diagram showing method of administering drugs to the SCG in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Bitmap illustration


Effect of nicotine (high conc) administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of nicotine (high conc) administered to SCG, electrical stimulation on in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Effect of nicotine (high conc) administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of nicotine (high conc) administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Suggested student tasks for experiments on cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Suggested student tasks (ten) for experiments on cat nictitating membrane preparation. HTML


Effect of isoprenaline administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of isoprenaline administered to NMJ, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Picture of cat showing location of nictitating membrane

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Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Picture of cat showing location of nictitating membrane. Vector Illustration


Effect of norepinephrine administered to ganglion, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation

 Image

Parent CAL: Cat Nictitating Membrane

Effect of norepinephrine administered to ganglion, electrical stimulation off in cat nictitating membrane preparation. Trace shows the contractions of the ipsilateral and contralateral nictitating membranes.


Text description of the actions of atropine on guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Text description of the actions of a reversible, competitive antagonist (atropine) and calculation of ED50 on isolated guinea pig ileum


Animated diagram of apparatus used for isolated guinea pig ileum preparation

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Animated colour diagram of the apparatus used for isolated guinea pig ileum preparation. as the user rolls over different items a pop-up window appears giving more information.


Question on the nervous innervation of guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Question on the nervous innervation of guinea pig ileum preparation. User must drag labels to the appropriate label-holder on a diagram of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves supplying the ileum.


Graphs showing the relationship between agonist concentration and amplitude of contraction in guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Tow graphs showing the relationship between agonist concentration and amplitude of contraction in guinea pig ileum. One shows agonist conc plotted against response and has the shape of a rectangular hyperbola. The second shows log 10 of agonist concentration against response and is sigmoidal in shape.


True false question on the nervous innervation of guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

True false question on the nervous innervation of guinea pig ileum.


Question on the pharmacological action of agents used in experiments on guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Question on the pharmacological action of nine different agents used in experiments on guinea pig ileum - acetylcholine, norepinephrine, atropine, naloxone, morphine, clonidine, mepyramine, histamine, phentolamine. User must match a list of pharmacological actions with the appropriate drug.


Calculation question on affinity constant for acetylcholine in guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

This is a two part question. The first part of a calculation question on affinity constant for acetylcholine in guinea pig ileum.  Users are provided with a set of data for the response of the ileum to different bath concentrations of acetylcholine and another set of data for the response in the presence of a known concentration of a reversible competitive antagonist (atropine). This poart of the calculation asks the user to submit an answer for the dose ratio i.e. the concentrations of acetylcholine producing the same response from each set of data - these terms are explained in the question. Feedback is provided for incorrect answers. The second part requires calculation of the affinity constant using the previously calculated dose ratio. Again helpful feedback is given.


Calculation question on the bath concentration of mepyramine in guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Question requiring the user to calculate the bath concentration of mepyramine in guinea pig ileum when a known solution of mepyramine is added to a known volume of Tyrode's solution in the organ bath.


Question on composition of Tyrode's solution

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

true-false question on composition of Tyrode's solution - the solution used to bathe isolated guinea pig ileum


Diagrammatic cross section of ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Colour diagram showing a labelled cross section of ileum.


Question on agonist dose-response graphs for different antagonists

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Question on agonist dose-response graphs for different antagonists. Question shows three graphs for agonist dose-response curves in the presence of different types of antagonists: reversible competitive; irreversible competitive; non-competitive. User has to match the type of antagonist with the appropriate graph.


Question on dose-response curves

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

This question requires the user to match a description of an effect of an antagonist administered at different concentrations on the dose response curve to an agonist


Effects of drugs on contractions elicited by transmural stimulation of guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

This experiment has three parts. Part 1 requires the user to determine a stimulus voltage which elicits a response which is just sub-maximal. Part 2 uses that stimulus voltage to investigate the effects of various drugs (atropine, clonidine, morphine, naloxone, phentolamine). The user then answers questions on the actions of the drugs. Part 3 requires the user to investigate the effects of naloxone on the action of morphine, and phentolamine on the action of clonidine. Again there are questions testing understanding of  the data.


Determination of standard dose for acetylcholine and histamine and effects of antagonists in guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Determination of standard dose (a dose which produces a sub-maximal (75%) response for acetylcholine and histamine in guinea pig ileum. Once determined the effects of antagonists mepyramine and atropine are investigated. Students must complete calculations based on the data provided (standard dose) and answer self-assessment questions about the observed effects of the antagonists.


Histology of smooth muscle cells

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Histological image of intestinal smooth muscle cells showing spindle-shaped cells with cigar-shaped nuclei and collagen fibres.


Question on receptor types and the effects they mediate in guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

True-false question on the different receptor types (histamine; 5-HT; muscarinic cholinoceptors; adrenoceptors) and the effects they mediate (contraction or relaxation) in guinea pig ileum


Experiment Setup (animated) Guinea Pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Animated diagram of apparatus used to investigate effects of drugs in isolated guinea pig ileum (in vitro).


Text describing the relationship between drug dose and tissue response and explanation of pharmacokinetic parameters

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Text description describing the relationship between dose (and log dose) and tissue response. Explanation of dissociation constant, affinity, affinity constant and ED50.


Question on usefulness of different dose-response plots

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

True-false question on usefulness of different dose-response plots in determining the action of an unknown agonist on a tissue preparation such as guinea pig ileum.


Question about isotonic transducers

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

True-false question about the properties of isotonic transducers


Experiments to investigate dose response relationship for acetylcholine in guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Experiments to investigate dose response relationship for acetylcholine in guinea pig ileum. Three part investigation. Part 1 requires determination of the dose of ACh which produces a maximal response (user must enter value); Part 2 requires the user to select six doses between the dose which just produces a response and the dose which produces a maximal response (user must submit values); Part 3 plots a graph of the linear dose-response curve and the log-dose response curve based on the submitted values and requires the user to observe whether these are consistent with the 'ideal' graphs (overlaid for comparison).


Calculation question on ED50 and Affinity constant

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Calculation question in two parts. Users are presented with a table of data showing response against drug (acetylcholine) concentration. Part 1 requires them to calculate the ED50. part 2 requires then to then calculate the Affinity constant. Feedback is provided to both correct and incorrect answers for both parts


Calculation question on drug concentration when added to organ bath

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Calculation question on drug concentration when added to organ bath. Scenario describes the addition of a known volume of a known concentration of histamine to an organ bath of known volume and requires calculation of histamine concentration in the bath. Useful feedback is given to both correct and incorrect answers.


Diagram of cross-section of ileum in 3D

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Diagram of cross-section of ileum in 3D showing different layers and nerve supply.


Animated diagram of 2D cross-section of ileum describing different control mechanisms for motility

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Colour diagram of 2D cross-section of ileum. Roll-over animations describe the different control mechanisms for intestinal motility - myogenic, hormonal, neurogenic.


Effects of atropine on the dose-response curve for acetylcholine in guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Three part experiment investigating the effects of atropine on the dose-response curve for acetylcholine in guinea pig ileum. Part 1 requires the user to determine a dose of atropine which produces a greater than 50% reduction in the response to acetylcholine; Part 2 requires that the user select six concentrations of acetylcholine to investigate in the presence of the selected concentration of atropine; Part 3 requires the user to compare the dose response curve based on their selected concentrations of acetylcholine with the norm and compare the dose response curve to acetylcholine in the absence and presence of atropine. Feedback is given throughout.


Question on action of acetylcholine on guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Question on why increasing the dose of acetylcholine above a certain level produces no further increase in the size of the contraction of guinea pig ileum. User must enter a free text answer and submit. A model answer is displayed and user must compare and score (scale of 1-5) their answer with the model answer.


Effects of different antagonists on transmurally stimulated (High frequency) guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Experiments to show the effects of different antagonists (naloxone, phentolamine, propranolol) on transmurally stimulated (high frequency (10 Hz)) guinea pig ileum. Four parts: Part 1 shows contractions in response to a fixed electrical stimulation protocol; Part 2 shows the effects of naloxone


Calculation question for ED50, Dose-ratio, and Kaff based on data from guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Calculation question for ED50, Dose-ratio, and Kaff based on dose response data for acetylcholine in the absence and presence of atropine. Data is taken from isolated guinea pig ileum in vitro .The question has 3 parts: Part one requires calculation of ED50 based on given data; Part two requires calculation of the dose-ratio and part three calculation of Kaff for atropine. Useful feedback is given throughout.


Calculation question for ED50 for action of acetylcholine in guinea pig ileum

Parent CAL: Guinea-Pig Ileum

Three part question based on data for the action of acetylcholine on isolated guinea pig ileum in vitro. The question shows a plot of log dose (of ACh) against response (contraction amplitude). Part one requires the user to select the optimum two points on the graph to measure the slope; Part two requires calculation of the slope and Part three requires calculation of the ED50. Helpful feedback is given throughout.


Effects of phenolphthalein on rat colonic motility

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Effects of phenolphthalein on colonic motility in rat in vitro. The experiment trace shows force of contraction (normal peristalsis and reflex induced contraction) and fluid flow through the intestine. This experiment shows the effects of phenolphthalein alone and in combination with neostigmine and atropine (Flash Interaction) 


Effect of epinephrine on rat colonic motility

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Effect of epinephrine on colonic motility in rat in vitro. The experiment trace shows force of contraction (normal peristalsis and reflex induced contraction) and fluid flow through the intestine. This experiment shows the effects of epinephrine (administered in acid saline) and the effects of vehicle alone alone  (Flash Interaction)  


Diagram of the apparatus used to measure colonic motility in rat in vitro

 Image
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Diagram of the apparatus used to measure colonic motility in rat in vitro. Labelled diagram with key shows the various components including the rat colon, organ bath, Krebs' solution, heating coil, isometric transducer, pen recorder, drop detector, syringe, and one way valve (Flash)


Effects of saline on normal peristalsis of rat colon

 Image
 Interactions
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Effects of saline on rat colonic motility.  The experiment trace shows force of contraction (normal peristalsis) and fluid flow through the intestine. This experiment shows the effects of saline (which is used as a vehicle for most drugs in this experiment and therefore acts as a control) on normal peristaltic contractions - Flash - this is part one of a two part image and only displays the administration of saline on normal peristaltis.


Question on the effects of acetylcholine on rat colonic motility

 Quiz

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Question on the effects of exogenous acetylcholine on rat colonic motility. Multiple True/False - Flash 


Effects of acetylcholine on rat colonic motility

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Effects of acetylcholine on rat colonic motility.  The experiment trace shows force of contraction (normal peristalsis and reflex induced contraction) and fluid flow through the intestine. This experiment shows the effects of acetylcholine alone and in combination with neostigmine and atropine (Flash Interaction) on each of these parameters. Flash Interaction.


Animation of intestinal peristalsis

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Animation (colour) of a four step process to illustrate the intestinal peristaltic reflex.  Flash 


Effects of neostigmine on rat colonic motility

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Effects of neostigmine on rat colonic motility.  The experiment trace shows force of contraction (normal peristalsis and reflex induced contraction) and fluid flow through the intestine. This experiment shows the effects of neostigmine alone and in the presence of atropine (Flash Interaction)  


Effect of saline on rat colonic motility

 Image
 Interactions
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Effect of saline on rat colonic motility.  The experiment trace shows force of contraction and fluid flow through the intestine. This experiment shows the effects of saline and is part two of a two part image and displays the administration of saline on reflex-induced peristalsis - (Flash Interaction) 


Effects of saline alone and in the presence of neostigmine and atropine on rat colonic motility

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Effects of saline alone and in the presence of neostigmine and atropine on rat colonic motility.  The experiment trace shows force of contraction (normal peristalsis and reflex induced contraction) and fluid flow through the intestine - Flash Interaction. 


Question on effects of epinephrine on rat colonic motility

 Quiz

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Question (multiple True/False) on effects of epinephrine on motility of rat colon in vitro. - Flash Quiz 


Question on effects of carbachol on rat colonic motility

 Quiz

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Question (multiple True/False) on effects of carbachol on rat colonic motility - Flash Quiz. 


Diagram showing nervous control of intestinal peristalsis

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Diagram showing nervous control of intestinal peristalsis. The illustration shows circular & longitudinal muscle contraction, bolus transit and both excitatory and Inhibitory nervous pathways.


Question on effects of neostigmine and atropine on rat colonic motility

 Quiz

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Question (multiple True/False) on effects of neostigmine and atropine in saline control experiments on rat colonic motility - Flash Quiz


Effects of carbachol on rat intestine motility

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Effects of carbachol on rat intestine motility.  The experiment trace shows force of contraction (normal peristalsis and reflex induced contraction) and fluid flow through the intestine. This experiment shows the effects of carbachol alone and in combination with neostigmine (Flash Interaction) 


Question on effects of neostigmine on rat colonic motility

 Quiz

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Question (multiple True/False) on effects of neostigmine on colonic motility in rat in vitro. (Flash Quiz).


Question on effects of acetylcholine on rat colonic motility

 Quiz

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Question (multiple True/False) on the effects of acetylcholine, in absence and presence of neostigmine)  on colonic motility in rat in vitro (Flash Quiz). 


Diagram of intestinal peristalsis

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Diagram of intestinal peristalsis showing excitatory nervous pathways controlling circular & longitudinal muscle contraction and bolus transit. 


Question on effects of phenolphthalein on rat colonic motility

 Quiz

Parent CAL: Intestinal Motility

Question (multiple True/False) on effects of phenolphthalein in absence and presence of atropine and neostigmine,  on colonic motility in rat in vitro - Flash Quiz. 


coagulation 9 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Common Pathways > 4


prothrombin 2 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Prothrombin Time (PT) > 2


mcq q4 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 2


blood 3 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > Control of Fibrinolysis > 3


case 3 table 1 jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 3 > 2


iep 2 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 2


hpf 4 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > 4


platelet 3 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Platelets > Platelet 3


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 4 > 2


iep 1 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 1


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 4 > 3


platelet 4 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Platelets > Platelet 4


liver 2 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 2


iep 3 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 3


iep 4 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 4


mcq q11 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 6


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 3 > 5


cp 4 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Common Pathway > 4


case 2 table 1 jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 2 > 2


case 1 table 1 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 1 > 2


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Platelets > Platelet 3


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 3 > 5


case 2 5 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 2 > 5


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 5 > 5


hpf 3 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > Haemostatic Plug Formation 4


coagulation 8 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Common Pathways > 3


mcq q6 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 3


case 1 1 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 1 > 1


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 3 > 2


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 5 > 4


case 1 2 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 1 > 2


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 2


case 1 2 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 1 > 2


thrombin 4 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Thrombin Time (TT) > 4


liver 1 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 1


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Platelets > Platelet 2


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Summary


case 5 1 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 5 > 1


case 4 table 1 jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 4 > 2


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 4 > 5


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Platelets > Platelet 1


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Summary


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 5 > 2


coagulometer 2 jpg

 Image
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > The Coagulometer > 1


hpf 3 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > 3


mcq 1 htm

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQs > Introduction


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 Glossary
 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Glossary


thrombolytic 3 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 3


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Platelets > Platelet 4


hpf 1 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > 1


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 4 > 2


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 3 > 4


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 Image
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > The Coagulometer > 2


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 5 > 5


coag tests .htm

 HTML
 Introduction
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Introduction


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 5


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 2 > 3


hpf 2 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > Haemostatic Plug Formation 2


coagulation 6 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Common Pathways > 1


liver 4 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 3


coagulometer 3 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > The Coagulometer > 3


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 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 5


thromboplastin 1 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) > 1


thrombolytic 2 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 2


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Platelets > Platelet 2


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 3 > 1


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 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Introduction


intro swf

 Introduction

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Introduction


case 2 3 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 2 > 3


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 3 > 3


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Bleeding Time > 3


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 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 1 > 4


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Common Pathway > 1


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Title


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 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > Haemostatic Plug Formation 2


coagulation 1 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 1


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) > 3


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 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Bleeding Time > 1


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 2 > 2


case 5 table 2 jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 5 > 3


hpf 4 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > Haemostatic Plug Formation 5


mcq q15 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 8


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 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Platelets > Platelet 2


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 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Bleeding Time > 3


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > Control of Fibrinolysis > 5


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 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Bleeding Time > 4


coagulometer 1 jpg

 Image
 Introduction
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Introduction


hpf 1 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > Haemostatic Plug Formation 1


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 2 > 2


mcq q13 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 7


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 5


case 5 3 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 5 > 3


liver 3 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 2


case 5 3 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 5 > 3


mcq q8 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 4


case 2 table 2 jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 2 > 3


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 1 > 5


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 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Thrombin Time (TT) > 2


case 4 1 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 4 > 1


iep 1 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 1


cp 2 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Common Pathway > 2


liver 1 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 1


mcq q9 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 5


thrombolytic 4 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > Control of Fibrinolysis > 1


coagulation 7 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Common Pathways > 2


thrombolytic 1 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 1


thromboplastin 3 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) > 3


hpf 5 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > 5


case 1 table 2 jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 1 > 3


coagulation 3 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 3


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Clotting Factors


case 4 5 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 4 > 5


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 5 > 2


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Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 1 > 3


thrombolytic 7 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > Control of Fibrinolysis > 4


thrombolytic 8 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > Control of Fibrinolysis > 5


rotor arm jpg

 Image
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > The Coagulometer > 2


prothrombin 3 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Prothrombin Time (PT) > 3


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Clotting Factors


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > The Coagulometer > 3


case 4 table 1 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 4 > 2


mcq q17 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 9


case 1 4 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 1 > 4


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Bleeding Time > 4


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 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Summary


mcq q16 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 8


mcq q12 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 6


printout jpg

 Image
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > The Coagulometer > 2


coagulation 4 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 4


thromboplastin 2 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) > 2


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 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Common Pathway > 4


case 3 2 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 3 > 2


blood 2 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > Control of Fibrinolysis > 2


platelet 4 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Platelets > Platelet 4


mcq q14 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 7


platelet 1 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Platelets > Platelet 1


prothrombin swf

 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Prothrombin Time (PT) > 3


cp 3 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Common Pathway > 3


intro 1 htm

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Introduction


blood 1 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > Control of Fibrinolysis > 1


cases 1 htm

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Introduction


thrombin 1 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Thrombin Time (TT) > 1


mcq q5 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 3


coagulometer 2 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > The Coagulometer > 2


liver 2 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 2


coagulation 2 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 2


clotting factors jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Clotting Factors


case 2 knee jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 2 > 1


bleeding 2 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Bleeding Time > 2


monitor jpg

 Image
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > The Coagulometer > 2


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Thrombin Time (TT) > 4


case 1 3 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 1 > 3


case 3 3 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 3 > 3


coagulometer 1 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > The Coagulometer > 1


mcq q7 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 4 (not used)


case 5 2 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 5 > 2


bleeding 1 swf

 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Bleeding Time > 2


thrombolytic 6 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > Control of Fibrinolysis > 3


hpf 1 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > Haemostatic Plug Formation 1


case 5 table 1 jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 5 > 2


case 2 table 2 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 2 > 3


iep 3 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 3


case 5 test 2 jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 5 > 4


hpf 3 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > Haemostatic Plug Formation 4


case 4 table 2 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 4 > 3


thrombolytic 5 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > Control of Fibrinolysis > 2


case 3 table 2 jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 3 > 3


blood 4 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > Control of Fibrinolysis > 4


case 4 3 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 4 > 3


iep 2 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 2


mcq q10 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 5


case 1 table 2 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 1 > 3


case 1 5 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 1 > 5


liver 5 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 3


platelets 1 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Platelets > Platelet 1


liver 3 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 2


mcq q18 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 9


liver 4 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 3


case 5 test 1 jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 5 > 4


mcq q1 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 1


liver 5 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Thrombolytic Mechanisms > 3


platelets 3 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Platelets > Platelet 3


case 5 table 2 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 5 > 3


case 2 test RIS jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 2 > 4


case 1 bruising jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 1 > 1


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 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Animated Platelet illustration for CAL title screen.


case 1 table 1 jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 1 > 2


case 3 haemophilia jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 3 > 1


cp 1 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Common Pathway > 1


mcq q2 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

MCQ's > 1


cp 2 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Common Pathway > 2


iep 4 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways > 4


case 2 5 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 2 > 5


hpf 2 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > 2


case 4 table 2 jpg

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 4 > 3


cp 3 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Coagulation > Common Pathway > 3


prothrombin 1 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Prothrombin Time (PT) > 1


case 2 1 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 2 > 1


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 HTML
 Introduction
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Introduction


hpf 4 gif

 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Tutorials > Haemostatic Plug Formation > Haemostatic Plug Formation 5


case 3 table 1 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 3 > 2


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 4 > 4


thrombin 3 htm

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Methods > Coagulation Tests > Thrombin Time (TT) > 3


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 Image

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 2 > 4


case 3 3 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 3 > 3


case 2 4 htm

 HTML

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Clinical Cases > Case 2 > 4


case 2 2 swf

Parent CAL: Blood Coagulation

Cases > Case 2 > 2


broncho 1 2 text

 HTML

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Bronchodilation > Parasympathetic agents > Parasympathetic antagonist (anticholinergic) agents


mode of action swf

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Bronchodilation > The ability of drugs to dilate narrowed airways and reverse the limitation to airflow > B2-Sympathomimetic drugs > Mode of action


case7 swf

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 7 > Patient details - Test results


lungs swf

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Test your knowledge


standing Flash Video (FLV) version

 Video
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Performing the test


graph video

 Video
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test


normal 1 2 text

 HTML

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Normal values > Height


inflammation swf

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Inflammation


height swf

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Normal values > Height


pef 2 text

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow 1


methods conc 1 text

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Conclusion


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Preparing for the test


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 Introduction
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Test your knowledge > Introduction


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Bronchodilation > The ability of drugs to dilate narrowed airways and reverse the limitation to airflow


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Peak Expiratory Flow - Practical class


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Measuring the values


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Gas transfer > The ability of the lungs to transfer gas from the alveoli into the blood > Gas transfer


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 5 > Patient details - Test results


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Measuring the value


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Lung volumes > Helium dilution technique


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Lung volumes > Helium dilution technique 3


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > Peak flow meter


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Lung size > The size of the lungs and the degree of expansion > Static lung volumes 1


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Bronchodilation > The ability of drugs to dilate narrowed airways and reverse the limitation to airflow > Parasympathetic agents > Mode of action


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 2 > Patient details - Test results


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Normal values > Normal limits


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 5 > Patient details - Test results


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Bronchodilation > The ability of drugs to dilate narrowed airways and reverse the limitation to airflow > B2-Sympathomimetic drugs > Mode of administration


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Virtual practical class


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Practical class


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Reversibility


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Virtual practical class


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 Introduction

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Introduction


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 6 > Patient details - Test results


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test - video 1


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Performing the test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Flow in tubes


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > Forced Expired Volume in 1 second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Vital Capacity (VC)


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 6 > Patient details - Test results


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Normal values > Gender


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Normal values > Ethnic origin


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 4 > Patient details - Test results


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Tissue destruction


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Transfer factor


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 Introduction
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Introduction


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Normal values > Age


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Lung size > The size of the lungs and the degree of expansion > Static lung volumes > Mild/moderate obstructive disorder


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Virtual practical class 2


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 Introduction

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Introduction


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > Forced Expired Volume in 1 second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Vital Capacity (VC) > Turbine


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow - Performing the test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Reversibility > Reversibility tests > Interpreting the tests


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 4 > Patient details - Test results


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Performing the test


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Mucus


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow


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 Introduction

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Introduction 1


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Bronchodilation > B2-Sympathomimetic drugs > B2-Sympathomimetic (B2-Adrenoreceptor agonist) drugs


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Lung size > The size of the lungs and the degree of expansion > Static lung volumes 2


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > Turbine


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Virtual practical class 1


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Lung size > The size of the lungs and the degree of expansion > Severe obstructive disorder


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Gas transfer > The ability of the lungs to transfer gas from the alveoli into the blood 2


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Challenge tests


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Forced Expired Volume in one second (FEV1) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) 1


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Lung volumes > Helium dilution technique 2


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Transfer factor > A Single Breath Carbon Monoxide Test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > Pneumotacograph


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Lung size > The size of the lungs and the degree of expansion > Mild/moderate obstructive disorder


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Lung volumes > Helium dilution technique


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 Introduction

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Test your knowledge > Introduction


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 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Performing the test


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Performing the test


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Peak Expiratory Flow - Practical class


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Smooth muscle


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Lung size > The size of the lungs and the degree of expansion > Static lung volumes > Severe obstructive disorder


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 Image

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Bronchodilation > The ability of drugs to dilate narrowed airways and reverse the limitation to airflow > Theophylline > Theophylline and related drug Aminophylline


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Test your knowledge


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Quit > Credits


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Challenge tests > Metacholine challenge test


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Cases > Case 1 > Your details - Test results


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Preparing for the test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Smooth muscle


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 Video
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Mucus


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Measuring the value


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Bronchoconstriction


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Peak flow meter


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test - video 2


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Home


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Normal values > Weight


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Gas transfer > The ability of the lungs to transfer gas from the alveoli into the blood 1


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Challenge tests > Metacholine challenge test


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 Glossary
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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Glossary


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 1 > Your details - Test results


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 Video
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF)


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Virtual experiment


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Bronchodilation > The ability of drugs to dilate narrowed airways and reverse the limitation to airflow > B2-Sympathomimetic drugs > Mode of administration


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test


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 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Performing the test video


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 2 > Patient details - Test results


claire 2 image

 Image
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Gas transfer > The ability of the lungs to transfer gas from the alveoli into the blood > Transfer factor


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Inflammation


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Test your knowledge


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Test your knowledge > Conclusion


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Credits


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Title


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Practical class


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Tissue Destruction


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 Introduction

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Introduction 2


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Normal values > Normal limits


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Test your knowledge > Conclusion


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Asthma


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 Image

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases


graph Flash Video (FLV) version

 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test


virtual pef swf

 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Peak Expiratory Flow - PEF Virtual experiment


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Normal values > Weight


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 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > Bellows


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 Glossary

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Glossary


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Preparing for the test


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Flow in tubes


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Challenge tests > Exercise challenge test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Conclusion


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 3 > Patient details - Test results


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > Forced Expired Volume in 1 second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Vital Capacity (VC) > Pneumotacograph


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 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Reversibility > Reversibility tests > Performing the test


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Limitation to airflow > Limitation to airflow along the airways > Forced Expired Volume in one second (FEV1) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) 2


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 Video
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow > Performing the test


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Peak Expiratory Flow > How to measure Peak Expiratory Flow - Preparing for the test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 7 > Patient details - Test results


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 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Reversibility > Reversibility tests > Types of test


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > Forced Expired Volume in 1 second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Vital Capacity (VC) > Bellows


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Conclusion


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 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Gas transfer > The ability of the lungs to transfer gas from the alveoli into the blood 3


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Measuring the values


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Lung volumes > A single breath carbon monoxide test


restrictive swf

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Lung size > The size of the lungs and the degree of expansion > Static lung volumes > Restrictive disorder


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Cases > Case 3 > Patient details - Test results


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 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Lung volumes > Helium dilution technique 4


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 Image
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Virtual practical class


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Test your knowledge > Questions


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 Image

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Bronchodilation > The ability of drugs to dilate narrowed airways and reverse the limitation to airflow > Corticosteroids > Corticosteroids (steroids)


sitting Flash Video (FLV) version

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Spirometry > FEV1, FVC and VC > How to measure FEV1 and FVC > Performing the test


normal 1 text

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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Normal values


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Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Lung size > The size of the lungs and the degree of expansion > Static lung volumes > Lung volumes


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Challenge tests > Exercise challenge test


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 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Test your knowledge > Questions


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 HTML

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Lung size > The size of the lungs and the degree of expansion > Restrictive disorder


normal 1 4 text

 HTML

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Normal values > Gender


lung vol 1 text

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Methods > Lung volumes > Helium dilution technique 1


age swf

Parent CAL: Chest Clinic

Tutorial > Normal values > Age


experiment demo

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Scintillation Counting - practical exercise (flash interaction)


1b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Control experiments > methionine


3 2 3b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > T/M ratio > Glycine + 5mM methionine


3 2 1 2b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine + methionine > + serosal mannitol


3 2 4a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of phlorrhizin > Glycine only


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 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence (final frame, still image)


exp 1

 HTML

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


1b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Control experiments > methionine


3 1 3a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Basic experiments > galactose > + glycine


3 2 2 3b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + galactose > After 5 min


experiment demo

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Scintillation Counting - practical exercise (flash interaction)


exp 3 2 3

 HTML

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


interact 1

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems (static vector image)


3 2 3c

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > T/M ratio > Glycine + 15mM methionine


simulation screen

 Image
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Indirect Methods: Simulation


3 2 2 2a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + methionine > After 1 min


3 2 3b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > T/M ratio > Glycine + 5mM methionine


absorption info

 Document

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption Users Guide & Student Notes


exp 3 1

 HTML

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


1a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Control experiments > glycine


3 2 2 2b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + methionine > After 5 min


method 2 1 1b

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


2 1a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence > glycine > + KCL


3 1 3b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Basic experiments > galactose > + methionine


3 2 1 3c

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine + galactose > + serosal mannose


3 2 4a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of phlorrhizin > Glycine only


intro 4 2

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


method 2 2 1c

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


dialup

 Interactions
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Indirect Methods: Simulation. This simulation allows the user to alter the mucosal concentration of substrate and a corresponding change in potential difference (pd) is then shown on the millivoltmeter. (Flash Interaction)


exp 3 2 5

 HTML

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 2 2 3b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + galactose > After 5 min


exp 3 2

 HTML

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


method 2 2 2a

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 2 2 3d

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + galactose > After 30 min


method 2 1 3a

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


2 3a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence > galactose > + KCL


3 2 1 3c

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine + galactose > + serosal mannose


3 1 1a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Basic experiments > Glycine > + methionine


2 1b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence > glycine > + tris CL


pot dif 1

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Potential difference (static image)


title 1

 HTML

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 2 3c

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > T/M ratio > Glycine + 15mM methionine


3 2 4b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of phlorrhizin > Glycine + phlorrhizin


3 2 4b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of phlorrhizin > Glycine + phlorrhizin


3 2 3e

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > T/M ratio > Glycine + 20mM galactose


3 1 2b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Basic experiments > methionine > + galactose


3 2 1 3b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine + galactose > + serosal mannitol


intro 3 4

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 2 2 1c

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine only > After 10 min


3 2 1 1a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine only > No serosal mannitol


3 2 2 1b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine only > After 5 min


3 2 1 1c

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine only > + serosal mannose


exp 3 2 1

 HTML

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 2 1 1c

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine only > + serosal mannose


2 1a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence > glycine > + KCL


1a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Control experiments > glycine


scintillation

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Scintillation Counting - Quench Curve (static image)


interact 3

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems (static vector image)


direct3

 Interactions
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Direct Methods: Simulation (flash interaction)


2 1b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence > glycine > + tris CL


3 2 2 3a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + galactose > After 1 min


pot dif 2

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Potential difference (static image)


3 2 1 1b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine only > + serosal mannitol


3 1 2a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Basic experiments > methionine > + glycine


3 2 1 3b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine + galactose > + serosal mannitol


3 2 2 2c

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + methionine > After 10 min


sod5

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence (flash interaction)


absorption info

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption Users Guide & Student Notes


3 2 2 2c

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + methionine > After 10 min


quench

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Quench Curve (flash interaction)


method 2 1 2a

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 2 3d

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > T/M ratio > Glycine + 10mM galactose


3 2 1 2a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine + methionine > No serosal mannitol


3 2 2 1a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine only > After 1 min


exp 2

 HTML

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 2 3e

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > T/M ratio > Glycine + 20mM galactose


method 2 1 1a

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 1 3b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Basic experiments > galactose > + methionine


experiment

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

1 of 42 Experiments (Flash Interactions) (Master File)


3 2 2 2b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + methionine > After 5 min


3 2 3d

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > T/M ratio > Glycine + 10mM galactose


dialup

 Interactions
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Indirect Methods: Simulation. This simulation allows the user to alter the mucosal concentration of substrate and a corresponding change in potential difference (pd) is then shown on the millivoltmeter. (Flash Interaction)


3 2 2 1d

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine only > After 30 min


2 2a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence > methionine > + KCL


intro 4 1

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


2 3a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence > galactose > + KCL


3 2 3a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > T/M ratio > Glycine only


intro 3 1

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


2 1c

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence > glycine > + choline CL


2 2a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence > methionine > + KCL


method 2 1 2c

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 2 1 3a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine + galactose > No serosal mannitol


method 2 2 1a

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


sod3

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence (flash interaction)


3 2 2 3c

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + galactose > After 10 min


3 2 2 2a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + methionine > After 1 min


3 2 1 1b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine only > + serosal mannitol


3 2 2 3a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + galactose > After 1 min


3 2 1 2c

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine + methionine > + serosal mannose


3 2 1 2a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine + methionine > No serosal mannitol


3 2 1 3a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine + galactose > No serosal mannitol


sod2 - still image

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence (final frame, still image)


1c

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Control experiments > galactose


3 2 2 2d

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + methionine > After 30 min


rat

 Animation

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Spinning Orange Rat (Flash Animation)


3 2 2 1d

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine only > After 30 min


sod1

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence (static image)


3 2 2 1b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine only > After 5 min


3 2 2 3d

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + galactose > After 30 min


quench

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Quench Curve (flash interaction - master file)


3 2 1 1a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine only > No serosal mannitol


intro 1 1

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


intro 4 3

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 2 2 2d

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + methionine > After 30 min


rat

 Animation

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Spinning Orange Rat (Flash Animation)


exp 3 2 4

 HTML

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


exp 3 2 2

 HTML

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 1 3a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Basic experiments > galactose > + glycine


intro 3 5

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 2 2 1c

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine only > After 10 min


intro 3 3

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


interact 2

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems (static vector image)


3 1 1a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Basic experiments > Glycine > + methionine


intro 2 1

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


intro 3 2

 HTML
 Introduction

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 1 1b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Basic experiments > Glycine > + galactose


3 2 3a

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > T/M ratio > Glycine only


3 1 1b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Basic experiments > Glycine > + galactose


3 2 1 2b

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine + methionine > + serosal mannitol


2 1c

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence > glycine > + choline CL


3 1 2b

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Basic experiments > methionine > + galactose


sod2

 Interactions

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Sodium Dependence (flash interaction)


3 1 2a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Basic experiments > methionine > + glycine


3 2 1 2c

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of energy > Glycine + methionine > + serosal mannose


method 2 2 1b

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 2 2 3c

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine + galactose > After 10 min


1c

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Control experiments > galactose


method 1 1

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


3 2 2 1a

 Image

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Interaction of systems > Further experiments > Effect of time > Glycine only > After 1 min


method 2 1 2b

 HTML
 Methods

Parent CAL: Intestinal Absorption

Intestinal Absorption - Main CAL text


Using Pipettors: 1 - Pipettors, tips, disposal

 Video
 Tutorial

The laboratory bench contains a blue pipettor, which requires tips from a container, or a blue tip box. There is also a yellow pipettor, which requires yellow tips from a container, or a yellow tip box. There is also a waste disposal bin.

Video 1/3 - Using pipettors

Video Tutorials by Dr Matthew Cheesman,
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia


Using Pipettors: 2 - Adjusting volumes and attaching tips

 Video
 Tutorial

The volume on the yellow pipettor can be adjusted, and can accurately measure between 10 and 100 microlitres. When the desired volume is obtained, a yellow tip can be attached. The blue pipettor can accurately measure between 100 and 1000 microlitres, and once the desired volume is obtained, a blue tip can be attached.

Video 2/3 - Using pipettors

Video Tutorials by Dr Matthew Cheesman,
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia


Using Pipettors: 3 – Two-stop pipettors, and preparing solutions

 Video
 Tutorial

There are two stops on these pipettors, the first stop and the second stop. After attaching a tip, depress the pipettor to the first stop. Slowly withdraw the desired sample, coloured blue in this example. When dispensing the solution, depress the pipettor down to the first stop and then also to the second stop to expel all of the volume. Afterwards, fully release the pipettor. To eject the tip, use your thumb to depress the button on the edge of the pipettor, and release into the disposal waste bin.

Video 3/3 - Using pipettors

Video Tutorials by Dr Matthew Cheesman,
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia


Preparing serial dilutions: 1 - Preparing eppendorf tubes

 Video
 Tutorial

Obtain a number of eppendorf tubes from the trays provided. Label your tubes with the concentrations of the drug and the name of the drug. Place them in an eppendorf rack. Ultimately, you will have a series of labeled tubes, from the highest concentration on the left, to the lowest concentration on the right.

Video 1/2 - Preparing Serial Dilutions

Video Tutorials by Dr Matthew Cheesman,
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia


Preparing serial dilutions: 2- Preparing the first dilution

 Video
 Tutorial

For the first dilution, you will need to obtain 900 ul of Tyrode’s solution. This is then dispensed into the next, labelled eppendorf tube. The concentrated stock solution of drug, 100 mM acetylcholine, is obtained from the ice bucket. One hundred microliters of this solution is withdrawn, and added to the 900 ul of Tyrode’s solution. The eppendorf tube is capped and inverted several times to mix, and returned to the eppendorf rack. Eventually, you will have a series of serial dilution stocks like these. As an example, if we were to use a blue dye for the 100 mM stock solution of drug, this picture demonstrates the 10-fold serial dilutions that are prepared from this stock.

Video 2/2 - Preparing Serial Dilutions

Video Tutorials by Dr Matthew Cheesman,
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia


Using the Organ Bath: 1 - Introduction to the Organ Bath

 Video
 Tutorial

This is an organ bath containing a piece of ileum tissue, and is connected to a transducer which records tension that is displayed by the computer. The tissue is mounted inside the organ bath chamber containing Tyrode’s solution and oxygenated with Carbogen. In the resting state, the tissue displays baseline contractions, or oscillations, as displayed by this trace.

Video 1/4 - Using the Organ Bath

Video Tutorials by Dr Matthew Cheesman,
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia


Using the Organ Bath: 2 – Adding drugs and recording contractions

 Video
 Tutorial

As an example, let’s add acetylcholine to a final concentration of 1 uM in the organ bath. Use the bar at the bottom of the trace on the computer to label the experiment with both the concentration and name of the drug. Select the correct stock concentration of drug, and set your pipettor to the appropriate volume. Withdraw the drug from the eppendorf tube, and add it to the chamber just below the surface of the buffer and into the Carbogen bubbles. At the same time, press Enter on your computer to mark the addition. If a contraction is observed, and once you are confident that a plateau is obtained, you can then wash the organ bath.

Video 2/4 - Using the Organ Bath

Video Tutorials by Dr Matthew Cheesman,
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia


Using the Organ Bath: 3 – Washing the organ bath

 Video
 Tutorial

These clamps allow the flow of buffer in and out of the organ bath. One of them is located at the bottom, which releases the chamber buffer contents, while an upper clamp allows fresh buffer to enter. Just before starting a wash step, be sure to include a wash label on the computer first. Squeeze the lower clamp to release the stored buffer. Then, squeeze the upper clamp to re-fill the chamber. Repeat this three times in total. Finally, lift the overflow tube to return the chamber volume to 25 ml. Wash steps cause fluctuations in the tension on the string that connects the tissue, and this can be seen on the trace. This is why it is important to label the computer with the wash steps.

Video 3/4 - Using the Organ Bath

Video Tutorials by Dr Matthew Cheesman,
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia


Using the Organ Bath: 4 – Completing a full concentration-response curve

 Video
 Tutorial

In order to obtain a complete concentration-response curve, tissue contractions are measured using the lowest concentration of drug first, and then we continue in ascending order to higher concentrations of drug. It is possible that no observable contraction can be seen at the lowest drug concentrations. However, as drug concentrations are increased, obvious contraction will be seen, such as in this example. Remember that each drug concentration is tested 3 times, or in triplicate, and with wash steps in between, before moving on to the next highest drug concentration.

Video 4/4 - Using the Organ Bath

Video Tutorials by Dr Matthew Cheesman,
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia


Measuring contractions: 1 - Bringing up the data pad

 Video
 Tutorial

At the end of the experiment, you can access all your contraction data on the history channel on the left-hand side of the screen. To help you measure contractions, click on Window in the top menu and select Data Pad. Click on Ileum, ensure Max-Min is selected, and click OK. Click and drag the Ileum Max-Min area out of the box, and close the original box. Resize the Data Pad as necessary.

Video 1/2 - Measuring Contractions

Video Tutorials by Dr Matthew Cheesman,
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia


Measuring contractions: 2 – Measuring net contractions

 Video
 Tutorial

For each drug experiment, you will first need to measure the baseline contractions before the drug was added. Highlight this area, and make a note of the value. Next, highlight the area that spans from just before the drug was added, to where the contraction reaches a plateau. Now subtract the baseline value from this new value to obtain the net contraction caused by the drug.

Video 2/2 - Measuring Contractions

Video Tutorials by Dr Matthew Cheesman,
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia